OpenSea, the world’s hottest NFT startup, gained 500,000 customers in 1 12 months. Its founders went from broke to billionaires in that very same time. Now they’re struggling to maintain it from going off the rails.

In Could 2019, greater than 1,000 nerds, coders, and crypto-curious collectors gathered over three nights in New York Metropolis at a pageant devoted to digital artwork. Known as the Contemporary and Digital Art Fair (CADAF), it showcased works from 60 artists at Lightbox, a futuristic occasion house within the Garment District of Manhattan. The occasion catered to what was on the time a particularly area of interest group—individuals who had been captivated with artwork connected to blockchains, the digital ledger know-how that underpins cryptocurrencies. 

For 2 crypto entrepreneurs, the stakes had been significantly excessive. Devin Finzer and Alex Atallah had moved to New York the 12 months earlier than to develop their startup, OpenSea, a market for blockchain-linked artwork, in–online game gadgets, and collectibles. That they had constructed the platform and secured seed funding, however prospects had been scarce: Their firm was barely holding the lights on. 

However on the final night time of the truthful, within the gallery’s stark white basement, the 2 founders caught a pivotal break. The twins Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss, early Bitcoin traders and crypto entrepreneurs, bought a blockchain-backed, pixelated portrait called a CryptoPunk—utilizing OpenSea. The sale didn’t contain a headline-grabbing sum of money, however the second despatched a message to the pioneers on this budding digital artwork world: OpenSea was a spot the place they may do enterprise. 

At this time, the broader world is aware of blockchain-linked artworks as NFTs (non-fungible tokens), and OpenSea is the world’s largest market for these buzzy property. NFTs observe the possession and provenance of digital gadgets—something from visible artworks to music clips to a selfie along with your pet turtle. OpenSea processed simply over $5 billion in NFT transactions in January alone, accumulating a 2.5% charge on each deal. Because of its latest funding round, led by investment firms Paradigm and Coatue, the platform is valued at $13.3 billion, reportedly turning its founders into the NFT {industry}’s first on-paper billionaires (although OpenSea gained’t affirm that). 

OpenSea’s Alex Atallah (left) and Devin Finzer saved OpenSea afloat by a protracted stretch when NFT buying and selling was dormant. That modified rapidly in 2021.

Sasha Maslov, Institute

It’s onerous to overstate how rapidly this occurred. As lately as January 2021, solely about 7,000 customers carried out transactions on OpenSea, in line with crypto-tracking platform Dune Analytics; this January, virtually 550,000 did. That development has been turbocharged by headline-making milestones just like the artist Beeple’s $69 million sale of an paintings at Christie’s in March 2021. Hype-beasty initiatives just like the Bored Ape Yacht Membership (BAYC) have drawn in superstar patrons. At this level, everybody and their grandpa has gained not less than some consciousness of NFTs—and lots of need to purchase in.

Because the wave crested, OpenSea was able to trip it. Finzer and Atallah made the platform appealingly simple to make use of, and so they proved early on at occasions like CADAF that their website may assist artists monetize their work with out a intermediary. 

Because the founders rapidly discovered, nonetheless, they weren’t ready for every thing. After new customers flocked to the platform, widespread fraud adopted. Starting final fall, complaints about thefts, plagiarism, and tech breakdowns grew to become more and more widespread. OpenSea has been scrambling to deal with them, even because it confronts a downturn in NFT buying and selling and within the wider crypto market.

OpenSea’s employees consisted of “possibly seven individuals” when the large consumer inflow got here, Finzer, OpenSea’s CEO, explains to Fortune. “We undoubtedly didn’t count on issues to develop so quickly inside such a brief time frame. We extra anticipated issues to regularly ramp up.”

The corporate definitely didn’t put together to change into an web powerhouse. For a very long time, OpenSea appeared prefer it won’t quantity to a lot—a ardour undertaking run by two tech nerds, described by those that knew them pre-boom as earnest, curious newcomers to the artwork world. However right this moment, the middle of the Venn diagram that features individuals who care about each digital artwork and the blockchain has expanded exponentially. OpenSea has change into the monetary hub for NFT fervor—the locus of large expectations, with billions of {dollars} at stake.

As they shore up weak spots and resolve the right way to hold scaling, the founders face a problem that’s each strategic and philosophical. They constructed OpenSea on the rules of so-called Web3—the decentralized, blockchain-based web the place no single individual or entity is meant to regulate the platforms they construct. It’s a world with an everyone-for-themselves ethos, one which values free expression and commerce, however on the expense of security nets. (If individuals lose their non-public keys to the digital pockets that holds their NFTs, for example, no firm can step in to retrieve them.) However OpenSea’s position within the NFT increase has pressured it to make strikes related to Web2, the acquainted world of giants like Fb, Google, and Amazon, through which customers count on the customer support, accountability, and legal responsibility that conventional firms present. 

Up to now, OpenSea’s embrace of each webs has left many individuals wanting, as the corporate figures out the right way to bridge these universes. “We’ve got lots of accountability to our customers,” Finzer says, “and we’re all the time balancing.”


Finzer and Atallah have backgrounds that verify the containers for standard Silicon Valley success: laptop science levels from prestigious faculties (Finzer graduated from Brown in 2013, Atallah from Stanford in 2014), hard-to-get internships at tech monoliths (Google for Finzer, Apple for Atallah). They met quickly after commencement, by a mutual good friend. By 2017, every already had founder expertise—Finzer had simply offered Claimdog, a service that helped customers discover out whether or not companies owed them cash, and Atallah was winding down an organization. They had been able to discover new concepts collectively.

At a burrito place in San Francisco, the 2 mentioned their mutual curiosity in cryptocurrency—a subject of fast-growing fascination, because the price of Bitcoin soared from round $800 to a excessive of almost $20,000 over the course of 2017. The duo began attending blockchain meetups and experimented with a undertaking utilizing Wi-Fi routers for cryptocurrency mining.

In December 2017, a brand new blockchain undertaking dramatically shifted their focus. Known as CryptoKitties, it concerned wobbly-eyed cartoon cats connected to NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain. Collectors may “breed” the cats to create new ones and commerce them with each other. 

Although cartoon collectibles and blockchains appear inseparable now, CryptoKitties had been a groundbreaking concept. Few individuals had considered blockchains as something aside from a automobile for monetary exercise—utilizing them to play a whimsical recreation felt genuinely thrilling. What’s extra, the cross-eyed cats confirmed that you could possibly get a mass viewers fascinated with a crypto product—producing a lot enthusiasm that they briefly overwhelmed the Ethereum community. Finzer and Atallah realized {that a} market for such merchandise may fill an unmet want. 

The “OpenSea” identify got here early, Finzer remembers. As a result of the tokens that again CryptoKitties exist on the Ethereum blockchain, the founders considered calling {the marketplace} “etherBay”—like eBay. “We riffed on ‘bay’ as this ocean time period,” Finzer says, earlier than arriving at OpenSea. That identify illustrated the openness promised by Web3—a foil to the walled gardens of Google, Fb, and Amazon. It additionally made sense for a platform that aimed to mixture NFTs from everywhere in the net. “OpenSea is kind of the water between totally different international locations, the place one ship would come and commerce with one other ship,” Finzer explains. 

In early 2018, OpenSea obtained an preliminary $120,000 in funding from Y Combinator, adopted by a $2 million seed spherical from enterprise funds and angel traders. The location was up and working by that summer time, however by then, the crypto local weather had turned wintry; as currencies’ values plummeted, investor and shopper curiosity waned. The founders stayed dedicated, nonetheless, and their modest funding helped them make a fateful transfer: In July 2018, they relocated from San Francisco to New York Metropolis. 


Regardless of pleasure round initiatives like CryptoKitties, the blockchain artwork world was tiny on the time. “It’s so onerous for individuals to get in a mindset of what it was like,” says Jason Bailey, an early fanatic and CEO of ClubNFT, which helps customers again up and retailer NFT artwork. “Nobody actually noticed one another an excessive amount of as competitors, as a result of what we had been doing was nonetheless seen as fairly absurd.” CADAF, the 2019 artwork truthful, captured a few of that whimsy: A bench close to the doorway of the venue recorded summary pictures of the rear ends of everybody who sat there, encoding them into an immutable “Buttchain.”

The OpenSea duo landed in the midst of that absurdity in New York, assembly artists and mingling at conferences that introduced the group collectively. Among the many individuals they socialized with over beers had been curator-entrepreneurs Elena Zavelev and Andrea Steuer, the founders of CADAF. (At this time, the “C” stands for “crypto.”) “They had been curious concerning the artwork, though they didn’t come from the artwork world,” Steuer remembers. “They had been all the time very enjoyable.”

The founders “had been curious concerning the artwork, though they didn’t come from the artwork world. They had been all the time very enjoyable.”

Andrea Steuer, founder, CADAF

Finzer and Atallah additionally got here throughout as succesful and considerate, and that helped them earn their alternative at CADAF. On the time, OpenSea was one of many solely platforms providing a “achievement layer,” or shopping for instrument, for NFTs. CADAF’s founders selected OpenSea to deal with transactions for the truthful, primarily as a result of they appreciated the blokes—though the platform was not significantly intuitive but. Steuer remembers Atallah painstakingly strolling the Winklevosses by the method, however the deal acquired performed. 

CADAF additionally marked a significant shift in focus for OpenSea. Whereas it was, and stays, a market for a lot of sorts of NFTs, Finzer and Atallah realized that their blockchain-based platform had distinctive potential to accommodate artists, because it may publicly observe provenance (any given piece’s gross sales historical past—an essential factor within the fine-art world). There was lots they didn’t know. Steuer remembers sitting on the bar at Lightbox with Atallah, serving to him add artworks to the platform, and explaining {that a} single work may have a number of editions. “It was the primary time that they had been promoting artwork,” she notes. However the founders acknowledged how shortage and status may open new alternatives for his or her market. “We all the time thought the primary use instances for NFTs can be within the gaming {industry},” Finzer remembers. Encountering the chances in artwork, he says, “was an attention-grabbing shock.”


Riches didn’t instantly observe the revelation. Within the first half of 2020, OpenSea hosted about $1 million price of transactions a month—promising, however hardly eBay territory. Bailey remembers making an attempt to e-book a lodge room with Atallah that March in Austin, the place the 2 had been scheduled to talk on a panel collectively at South by Southwest. “We had been making an attempt to determine the right way to cut up a room at an Airbnb to get the fee right down to, like, 50 bucks every,” he says, “as a result of OpenSea had, like, no cash.” 

Within the spring of 2021, two NFT initiatives modified that. Bored Ape Yacht Membership, a group of 10,000 cartoon simian characters, launched in April, adopted shortly by Meebits—20,000 pixelated 3D figures generated algorithmically, by CryptoPunks creators Larva Labs. The OpenSea founders labored intently on the latter: One individual concerned with the launch remembers that Atallah personally reviewed the Meebits contracts—the blockchain coding underpinning the NFTs—to ensure every thing would go easily. 

Although a beneficiant gesture, the help was very a lot in OpenSea’s greatest curiosity. The launches occurred not lengthy after Beeple’s large Christie’s sale, because the NFT market started really heating up. For the primary six months of 2021, total NFT sales volume soared to $2.5 billion, up from simply $13.7 million within the year-earlier interval. Curious patrons flocked to OpenSea—partly as a result of big-name initiatives like Meebits had been there.

However customers additionally got here as a result of, in contrast with different marketplaces, OpenSea’s interface required minimal blockchain know-how. New customers now not wanted to submit NFT collections for approval earlier than promoting. And its “lazy minting” instrument, released in December 2020, allowed individuals to create NFTs with out paying “gasoline charges,” the price of the power it takes to execute a blockchain transaction, which may attain tons of of {dollars}.

“OpenSea is a implausible instrument,” says NFT collector Elsie (a pseudonym she makes use of on-line), who describes herself as a “grandmother within the house” at 51 years previous. Elsie describes OpenSea as particularly helpful post-purchasing, as a result of the positioning aggregates any NFTs a collector buys, anyplace on the net, displaying them collectively on that collector’s private OpenSea web page—like their very own non-public gallery. 

“We had been making an attempt to separate a room at an Airbnb to get the fee right down to, like, 50 bucks every, as a result of OpenSea had no cash.”

Jason Bailey, CEO, ClubNFT

The platform rapidly grew to become, for a lot of, the categorical lane down the NFT rabbit gap. It was a digital ecosystem the place explorers may discover a assortment of freshly minted fart noises subsequent to works by traditional-art giants like Damien Hirst and splashy digital names like Beeple and XCOPY. Anybody may take a look at Paris Hilton’s assortment, or DJ Steve Aoki’s, or flip a photograph of their canine into an NFT and attempt to promote it. And a few individuals did get wealthy, like these fortunate sufficient to acquire Bored Apes quickly after they debuted. (Fortune additionally acquired in on the act: In August, Fortune Media labored with OpenSea to public sale off a group of NFTs primarily based on the quilt artwork of a crypto-themed journal problem; the sale raised $1.3 million, half of which went to journalism-oriented nonprofits.)

Extra VC cash adopted the pattern. In July, VC large Andreessen Horowitz led a $100 million Series B funding round for OpenSea, joined by expertise company CAA, Ashton Kutcher, and Kevin Durant, valuing the corporate at $1.5 billion. Crypto-investing kingmaker Katie Haun, then a associate at Andreessen, joined OpenSea’s board.

It wasn’t lengthy, although, earlier than the treasure attracted pirates.

The @NFTtheft collective, which tracks complaints about NFT skulduggery from artists on Twitter, seen a giant uptick in plagiarism experiences involving OpenSea in November, collective member Bor says. (Bor works beneath a pseudonym to keep away from harassment.) Artists started discovering that works indistinguishable from theirs had been being offered as NFTs by OpenSea customers. By December, Bor says, his group had recognized “tons of of accounts” belonging to thieves and plagiarists on OpenSea, every making an attempt to promote “hundreds” of stolen artwork items. 

NFT plagiarism isn’t distinctive to OpenSea. NFTs can confirm {that a} piece of digital artwork is genuine and belongs to you, and may observe its chain of possession. However the blockchain can’t confirm that the JPEG related to an NFT isn’t a replica, and a purchaser is perhaps unable to inform the distinction. With digital artwork, copying is mainly theft; a singular, distinctive work could be devalued by an onslaught of clones.

The options that make OpenSea really easy to make use of—its lack of screening and lazy-minting instrument—fueled the plagiarism hearth. This February, OpenSea tweeted that greater than 80% of the NFTs it faraway from the platform for violations, together with plagiarism and spam, had been created with its lazy-minting instrument. However when it introduced that it deliberate to curb these issues by limiting what number of NFTs every consumer may create, it confronted an enormous backlash, and immediately reversed itself—leaving the caveat emptor regime in place.

Plagiarism wasn’t the positioning’s solely downside. In September, then head of product Nate Chastain was accused of insider buying and selling; he’d allegedly used details about which NFTs would seem on OpenSea’s homepage to purchase artwork that he knew would get prime placement. OpenSea asked for, and received, Chastain’s resignation; Chastain didn’t reply to a request for remark from Fortune.

Alex Atallah, in tie-dye, poses on the 2019 CADAF artwork truthful with Tyler Winklevoss, Matt Corridor, CADAF cofounder Elena Zavelev, Cameron Winklevoss, and John Watkinson. Corridor and Watkinson’s Larva Labs created the CryptoPunks and Meebits collections; the Winklevoss twins made a cryptoPunk buy at CADAF that raised OpenSea’s profile.

Courtesy of CADAF

A number of months later, bots capitalized on users’ inactive listings by a loophole that allowed hackers to deceptively purchase NFTs that had been now not on the market, at far-under-market costs. One consumer, Timothy McKimmy, has sued OpenSea, alleging that its failure to repair that identified vulnerability resulted in a hacker “shopping for” his not-for-sale Bored Ape at a lowball worth and reselling it for six figures. One among his legal professionals says McKimmy despatched a number of requests to buyer help, solely to obtain a kind response “greater than a month later.” In a February weblog publish, Finzer attributed the difficulty to the Ethereum blockchain, and wrote that OpenSea had upgraded its sensible contracts to counteract it. Nonetheless, the go well with echoes a typical grievance from customers—OpenSea’s customer support was subsequent to nonexistent once they wanted it. 

At this time, OpenSea is scrambling to shore up that help—with out elevating boundaries to entry for customers. As its founders needed, OpenSea stays, properly, open, to just about anybody, a nod to Web3’s ethos. Finzer calls Web3 “the following evolution of the web, [which] over time was consolidated and managed” by Massive Tech. “Web3 represented a brand new, open knowledge mannequin,” he says; strict policing of the positioning would violate that spirit.

The shortage of gatekeeping, however, can diminish OpenSea’s attraction to high-quality artists and their collectors. A number of who spoke with Fortune are gravitating to curated marketplaces the place customers should soar by extra hoops or get invited to promote their work, together with KnownOrigin, Nifty Gateway (owned by the Winklevosses, OpenSea’s early prospects), Snark.artwork, and Basis. 

“It’s not made for high-quality artwork,” artist Brendan Dawes says of OpenSea. He prefers to promote his artwork on SuperRare as a result of “it’s about one-of-ones, it’s not collectibles,” he says. Dawes additionally has a bone to select with OpenSea. Earlier this 12 months he auctioned one in all his works there to lift cash for Ukraine. OpenSea continued to just accept bids after the public sale was closed, says Dawes, placing him in a “tough place, as a result of clearly they’d outbid the one that, to my thoughts, had gained.” (He says he and the bidders labored it out amongst themselves.)

In the end, OpenSea “isn’t the good model,” acknowledges Bailey. “It’s virtually like—Alex will hate me for this—but it surely’s virtually like Walmart.” 

In fact, cool or not, Walmart had $573 billion in income final 12 months.


In March, Larva Labs offered its CryptoPunks and Meebits collections to Yuga Labs, the corporate behind Bored Ape Yacht Membership. Larva’s initiatives had grown from experimental digital artwork into one thing unwieldy, a mini-industry that its creators hadn’t anticipated having to cope with, and albeit didn’t need to. A Larva Labs weblog publish concerning the acquisition defined, “Our personalities and talent units aren’t properly suited to group administration, public relations, and the day-to-day administration that these sorts of initiatives require and deserve.”

OpenSea’s founders face the problem of proving that they are properly suited to these issues. Finzer, as CEO, now carries the heavier load; in January, Atallah, who had been CTO since OpenSea launched, relinquished that job and took on a brand new place overseeing “Web3 and NFT ecosystem improvement efforts,” the corporate introduced on the time. Many within the NFT group empathize with the duo: Bailey means that they’ve confronted “tall poppy syndrome,” through which individuals pile criticism on to those that have achieved nice success. 

Attending to ask the founders concerning the expertise instantly wasn’t simple. After a slew of press about OpenSea’s myriad issues, they weren’t clamoring for media consideration. Following a lot back-and-forth, I acquired 20 minutes on video with Finzer in late March. (OpenSea didn’t make Atallah accessible to interview.) Showing on Zoom from his New York Metropolis condo (background blurred), in a blue T-shirt, Finzer embodies his tech CEO position—personable in a vaguely bro-ish manner, and seemingly cautious to stay to predetermined speaking factors. 

After discussing OpenSea’s origins, we get into the corporate’s rising pains. Finzer acknowledges being gradual to deal with the problems that got here with quick development. “As a CEO, I needed to let sure issues possibly disintegrate whereas constructing out the remainder of the group,” he says. That group is coming collectively: In October, OpenSea introduced on a customer-support lead, Anne Fauvre-Willis, who Finzer says has diminished OpenSea’s response time to “lower than 24 hours,” helming a group of roughly 200, most of whom began in early 2022. In December, OpenSea employed Shiva Rajaraman as VP of product, who had beforehand held product roles at Apple and Spotify—firms which have proved they will make tech work seamlessly at scale.

Finzer tells me that he and his group “don’t need [OpenSea] to be a completely centralized custodial market … however we do need to present the best-in-class buyer help and consumer expertise,” all whereas “preserving the magic of Web3.” 

It’s unclear precisely how OpenSea can have it each methods. Among the plans Finzer describes, like OpenSea’s elevated emphasis on combating fraud, require Web2-style, centralized management. Finzer additionally says OpenSea’s deal with “inclusivity” will quickly imply letting customers purchase NFTs with credit score or debit playing cards as an alternative of crypto—one other Web2-catering transfer. Nonetheless, whereas these modifications might annoy crypto purists, they’re needed to achieve the internet-using majority. 

Within the first few months of this 12 months, NFT buying and selling declined sharply. Quantity on OpenSea in March was greater than 50% decrease, by greenback worth, than in January, in line with Dune Analytics. Measurements of NFT buying and selling range broadly from supply to supply: Information from, a monitoring platform that excludes sure sorts of automated buying and selling and “wash buying and selling,” means that total NFT gross sales plunged even more sharply from January through March, by virtually two-thirds.

No matter its diploma, some see this as a correction after outsize hype. Some early adopters suppose that will most likely be a great factor. “I do sort of hope the market crashes,” says Bailey of ClubNFT, describing the discomfort he’s felt watching “vultures in fits” monetize the digital-art world. After a crash, he hopes the group will “get again to simply being a bunch of nerds.”

OpenSea, in the meantime, is relying on additional development. Finzer indicators off from our interview to catch a flight to San Francisco. OpenSea’s group is gathering there for its first management offsite, the place the founders can bond with the brand new leads who’ve come aboard to navigate the tide of demand. 

I’d deliberate on asking Finzer if he thinks that demand will fade with the NFT market’s hunch, however his dogged optimism makes the query really feel moot. In spite of everything, he says, “it’s nonetheless actually early days for the house.”

CLARIFICATION: This text has been up to date to extra precisely mirror OpenSea’s January 2022 buying and selling quantity.

A model of this text seems within the April/Could 2022 problem of Fortune with the headline, “OpenSea: Studying to sail in tough waters.”

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